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 Southern Africa 

WAR OFFICE. [A 'Confidential' intelligence plan of Pretoria during the Second Boer War]
[Pretoria.] Intelligence Division, War Office, No 1438. Southampton: Ordnance Survey Office, 1899. Heliozincograph, printed area 525 x 790mm. Creasing in margins.
A sketch map of Pretoria published for the War Office the year that the Second Boer War started. It marks the four Pretoria Forts, built by the South African Republic in preparation for war with Britian. Three (Schanskop, Wonderboompoort and Klapperkop) were designed by employees of the German engineering company Krupp; the fourth (Fort Daspoortrand), by a French former artillery officer. A sketch inset shows the profile of the three German forts. At the beginning of the war it was a national scandal that the army had no detailed maps of their own colony, let alone the Boer republics. The Military Intelligence Division, founded in 1895, had only eighteen officers (compared to Germany's 150). The British Army suffered several setbacks as they could not rely on the maps they had. Maps such as this were rushed out: in the top right the printed word 'Confidential' denotes the need to keep extent of the British knowledge secret. By the time the British arrived in June 1900 most of the big guns of the forts had been removed for use elsewhere in the war. The British guns opened up on Klapperkop and Schanskop, but stopped when there was no response. The British walked in and rearmed the forts.
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